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Is This As It Seems, Just a Little Dig Below the Belt Because They're Sulking Over Brexit?

No.Because ridiculing the EU Commission as sulking and suggesting a document as just a little dig below the belt defines this question as, and I say with regret, ridiculous.As answered by Terence Kreft, this is about mutual recognition and harmonised standards. This is not about an international public body of civil servants collectively sulking, Nor is it about little digs. Brexit is a serious, regulatory, international, legal and treaty process requiring serious questions, government explanation and robust public engagement.Whether or not the EU want to recognise UK driving licences after 29 March 2019 is a matter of contention. But because the UK government is failing to explain practical Brexit rules and regulations as well as failing to manage voter expectation, then the EU can fill this information void with press releases of its own.

Thank you for your A2A Kane Taylor.

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What does Led Zeppelin's Stairway To Heaven actually mean?

Oh brother. What a question.I will tell you what my interpretation of Stairway to Heaven is. I think it is a song about coming of age, and also speaks about not conforming to ideals. Consider the lady being spoken about, who is sure all that glitters is gold, but at the end of the song becomes a lady everyone knows (There walks a lady we all know). I think it speaks about her maturing over the period of the song, using her intellect for good.The piper leading us to reason could also be construed as coming of age, gaining of wisdom while at the same time could possibly mean that some leader is needed to guide society into the light.I'll admit, I do not understand some parts of the song such as the songbird singing, but if you ask me, I believe Led Zep were commenting about life and struggles, coming of age and society through this wonderful song.

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Does the American Mafia still "whack" (kill) people these days?

I am 61. When I was a young man it was common to pick up a newspaper and read about La Cosa Nostra killings in some east coast city or Chicago. In the past 10-to-20 years it has become so rare that I pay close attention when I see one in the news. The last I saw was a few years ago--a NYC Jewish gangster was shot to death in his car in 2013. It is believed that it was a Genovese hit. I think that the head of the Philly mob also had someone try unsuccessfully to kill him in the recent past. Mob killings have become rare because the ability of La Cosa Nostra crews to get away with murder has too often failed since the mid 1980s. Oh they still killed up until about 2000-to-2005, but the killers and bosses that ordered the hit too often ended up eventually going to prison for it. I believe the mafia commission generally swore off killings around 2005 or so

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Why have technological advances seemed to have stopped in recent years?

Much of the newer technology is still developing and doesnt have a direct impact on our lives yet.Nanotechnology, inching its way toward assemblers, isnt visible to most of us, but someday, we will see real world applications.A.I. is doubling its capacity/performance every 3 1/2 months. Way outpacing Moores Law.

Quantum computing is still developing, and has the potential to exploit the Everett MWI interpretation of quantum physics to, literally, employing parallel universes in computation.However, if one remembers that between 1947, the first vacuum tube computer, and 1976, the first Apple computer, one has to remember that although computer technology was advancing according to Moores Law, the impact on our daily lives was almost invisible.The aforementioned technologies at this point are still invisible in our lives, but at some point, they will become part of our experience.

It is a matter of when, not if.

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Why did the Labour Party start in the 30s?

The political landscape was dominated by the aristocracy and their upper-middle class sycophants. This level of society, in general, viewed the rest of the people as just another form of livestock. Of no value unless they could be exploited for the generation of wealth for themselves. They had little empathy with ordinary people at all. They had more care for their hounds and horses or other livestock. The Grenfell Tower tragedy and other preventable horrors are a graphic result of this kind of attitude. The Labour Party formation evolved from other previous movements for social justice. They had also had to contend with the deployment of hired thugs and lockouts etc. In the World war people were conscripted into the military to defend a Country that they didn't own not one square inch of, and came back to poverty, unemployment, and virtually no medical care. The majority had been bullied and brainwashed into accepting that this was normally the way that societies were organised, and always would be

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What song by Led Zeppelin has the best intro?

So many to choose from!First in my head was Immigrant Song so Im going with it. Maybe its just because I steer toward hard rock, but man, it just grabs you from the opening notes. Im not old enough to remember that song as new, but I can only imagine how it mustve sounded at the time. There was really nothing like it.

And the fact that it was used in the Thor movie recently almost 50 years after the song came out is testimony to its power. I have to guess that children, young enough to be Zeppelins grandkids, heard the song in that movie and thought, What is that???? More realistically, though, they probably thought the song was created for the movie. The way the song starts, orchestrated with the opening of that scene, is simply perfect.

Thanks for the A2A!Answered:

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Who are the descendants of the Scythians today?

The Ossetians. Well, sort of - mainly from a linguistical point of view.'The Scythians' in a broader sense was an umbrella term for several nomadic and semi-nomadic peoples speaking Eastern Iranian languages and living in the East European steppes, the Crimea, and the Caucasus.A group of such peoples was called the Sarmatians. They were usually distinguished from the classical Scythians but were often counted among them in a broader sense since they spoke related Eastern Iranian languages (now classified as the Scythian subgroup). Those Sarmatians replaced the classical Scythians by the 2nd century BC.One Sarmatian people was called the Alans. Their descendants in the Caucasus have survived as a people till nowadays and are called the Ossetians. They still speak a language of the Scythian subgroup.Today most Ossetians live in Russia (Republic of North Ossetia - Alania), self-proclaimed and partially recognised South Ossetia (most countries consider it to be part of Georgia), Georgia, and Turkey.

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What dreams should you give up on?

Almost every dream or goal you can ever have will not be enough to satisfy you. That is the reason we have dreams. We need something unattainable to strive for because the struggle is what makes up our lives. The struggle is what keeps us from going mad, or at least from addressing what is really missing in our lives. That is why when the dream becomes possible, we dream of a more elaborate outcome, one which is more difficult to attain. This is the basic nature of man. Wanting and longing. Once you begin to understand this, you can give up on all of your dreams and begin to work towards the goals that you have in your life. If you truly have an understanding of your own mind, those goals may be much more difficult to attain than your dreams were. I've found that letting go and giving up desire is often more difficult than chasing down that which I thought I wanted

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What would happen if France left NATO?

Have a read of a NATO page that includes comments on France and its membership, here: tended to be a faithful ally when NATO was in danger, for example during Khrushchev's ultimatum in Berlin in 1958, during the construction of the Wall in August '61, during the period of the Cuban Missile Crisis. But once the crisis passed and things settled down, the French began to feel restless. They began to resurrect the old idea from the early 50s of Europe as a third force, independent of both superpowers.In 1966, at a very famous press conference, de Gaulle announced that he was pulling out of NATO's military structure and ordered SHAPE out of France.But was it really such a drama? I think no. First of all, the French were very careful to stay in NATO military programmes where they saw an advantage

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Why don't people show empathy towards depressed people? During depression, people undergo intense emotional suffering. I also noticed that depressed people are stigmatised.

Sometimes, even when they ARE shown empathy, the depressed person is so depressed that they cant recognize it.Sometimes, people dont show empathy because they just dont care that much, or because they dont know how, or because they think it wont do any good, or because they have been depressed themselves and they are frightened by the reminder of what it was like and what it could be again. This last one is my problem. Ive been depressed. I know how bad it can be. Seeing it in someone else is scary and depressing because I know that nothing I can say will fix the condition, and often there is nothing I can do, either, besides simply being present and not abandoning the sufferer, which feels like not enough, because I should be able to help people, not just sit with them while they try to endure.

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What do the people of Germany and France think of Britain leaving the European Union? Are they for or against it? And why?

The problem for the Germans is:The British are our European neighbors and are much closer to us than this stupid pig in Washington!

Of course there will be some drawbacks for the rest of Europe.

But for the UK it will be a disaster! You will live as a small vassal state of the USA.The UK will be delivered to the greedy handles of the US industry.

No EU standards for healthy food anymore.

Instead, chlorine chicken and genetically engineered vegetables!

Hormonally treated meat!

The US will abolish the NHS and open the market to its Big Pharma.That pleases us NOT, because, as I said, the British are our neighbors.

Even if the Brits do not understand that !!Did you forget? AMERICA FIRST!

UK will never be able to negotiate on equal terms. The EU can.

Do YOU really believe, seriously, Trump want the best for the UK? Dream On!!

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What if UK remained neutral during WW2?

If the British Empire had stayed neutral and Hitler left them to it then Hitler would of likely won. The US would have not been able to enter via the UK or have any bases in the UK during the war. It would arguably have been impossible for the US to enter in aid of France without going directly to france and without a point of operation nearby would be hard if not impossible without being able to station equipment and ships and refueling them. This taken into effect the US may have not even tried to help because of how much harder it would of been. However the Germans may have still lost because attacking the Russians yes they'd have much more troops and planes ect to send to the east but fighting the Russian in their land during winter was Germany's biggest mistake

Is This As It Seems, Just a Little Dig Below the Belt Because They're Sulking Over Brexit? 1

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End of Halogen Light Bulbs Spells Brighter and Cleaner Future
End of Halogen Light Bulbs Spells Brighter and Cleaner Future
Halogen light bulbs will be banned from September 2021 with fluorescent light bulbs to follow, cutting emissions and saving consumers on their energy bills. ●Halogen light bulbs to be banned from this September – with fluorescent light bulbs to follow suit ●shift to LED bulbs will cut 1.26 million tonnes of CO2 – the equivalent of removing over half a million cars from UK roads ●new rules part of tighter energy efficiency standards for electrical appliances as the UK builds back greener, helping save British consumers £75 a year on their energy bills The government has announced plans today (Wednesday 9 June) to end the sale of halogen light bulbs from this September, as part of the UK’s wider efforts to tackle climate change. Legislation being brought forward this month will also include the removal of fluorescent lights from shelves from September 2023. Currently, around 2 thirds of bulbs sold in Britain are LED lights, making a considerable impact in improving the energy efficiency of the country’s buildings. They last 5 times longer than traditional halogen lightbulbs and produce the same amount of light – but use up to 80% less power. The UK began phasing out the sale of higher-energy halogen lightbulbs in 2018. The new legislation would mean retailers will no longer be able to sell the majority of halogen bulbs for general household use in the UK from 1 September. To help people make the switch, ministers are also announcing that all light bulbs will start to feature new energy efficiency advice via ‘rescaled’ energy labels on their boxes. The labels will simplify the way energy efficiency is displayed on a new scale from A-G, doing away with the A+, A++ or A+++ ratings. The new labels will raise the bar for each class, meaning very few bulbs will now be classified as A, helping consumers choose the most environmentally friendly bulbs. This measure is expected to mean that LED light bulbs will account for 85% of all bulbs sold by 2030. In addition, the government also plans to start phasing out the sale of high-energy fluorescent lightbulbs, with a view to bringing an end to their sale from September 2023. Taken together, these new rules will mark a significant shift to more energy efficient and longer lasting LEDs and will stop 1.26 million tonnes of carbon being emitted every year - the equivalent of removing over half a million cars from the UK’s roads. The move is part of a package of energy efficiency improvements to electrical appliances, which will save consumers an average of £75 a year on energy bills. Energy Minister, Anne-Marie Trevelyan, said: We’re phasing out old inefficient halogen bulbs for good, so we can move more quickly to longer lasting LED bulbs, meaning less waste and a brighter and cleaner future for the UK. By helping ensure electrical appliances use less energy but perform just as well, we’re saving households money on their bills and helping tackle climate change. Today’s plans also include a ban from September on the sale of lighting fixtures with fixed bulbs that can’t be replaced – meaning the fixtures have to be thrown away. Fixtures such as these account for 100,000 tonnes of electrical waste every year – out of a total 1.5 million tonnes of electrical waste each year. Minister for Climate Change, Lord Martin Callanan, said: Flicking the off-switch on energy inefficient light bulbs is a simple way that households can save money at the same time as saving the planet. Phasing out halogen bulbs in favour of LED alternatives that last longer, are just as bright and cheaper to run, is another way that we are helping tackle climate change. Chief Executive of Signify UK, which owns Philips lighting, Stephen Rouatt, said: We welcome the UK government’s next step in the transition towards more sustainable lighting products. Using energy-efficient LED equivalents for halogen and fluorescent lighting on an even broader scale will significantly help the UK on its journey to decarbonisation, as well as lowering the annual electricity bills for consumers. Overall, the government’s package of energy efficiency improvements will also cut 8 million tonnes of carbon emissions in 2021 by reducing the amount of energy products consume over their life-time – the equivalent of removing all emissions from Birmingham and Leeds each year.
2021 09 27
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Bright Idea: New LEDs Can Detect Off Food And Lethal Gases
Bright Idea: New LEDs Can Detect Off Food And Lethal Gases
New LED technology has potential to benefit firefighters, miners, the military, plumbers and households.(Source:University of Melbourne) Your smart device could soon be even smarter with a new infrared light emitting diode (LED) that is ‘tuneable’ to different wavelengths of light – it could enable your fridge to tell you when your food is going off and your phone to tell you if that Gucci purse is real. The technology has been developed by the University of Melbourne, the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, the University of California, Berkeley, and the Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Transformative Meta-Optical Systems (TMOS). They have come up with a device that could identify a suite of gases, potentially including lethal ones, improving the safety of firefighters, miners, the military, and your local plumber. The work appeared in the journal, Nature. Infrared (IR) spectrometers are common laboratory equipment that can identify different materials by analysing their infrared signatures, which is invisible to the human eye. Just like an AM radio can be tuned to different frequencies of radio wave, IR spectrometers can be tuned to different wavelengths, giving a broad-spectrum analysis of a gas sample. However, these machines are bulky and expensive and not usually practical to take out of the laboratory and into the field. “Our new technology bonds a thin layer of black phosphorus crystals to a flexible, plastic-like substrate, allowing it to be bent in ways that cause the black phosphorus to emit light of different wavelengths essentially creating a tuneable infrared LED that allows for the detection of multiple materials,” University of Melbourne Professor Kenneth Crozier said. “This technology could fit inside smartphones and become part of everyday use.”For example, the bacteria found in meat release various gases as they multiply. The presence of these gases is a good indication that the meat is spoiling and is no longer fit for consumption.“The device placed inside a fridge could send a notification that meat is going off. When pointed at a handbag, it could reveal whether the bag is made of real leather or a cheaper substitute,” said Professor Crozier, who is also the Deputy Director of TMOS.Current materials that are used for IR photodetectors and light emitting devices can be difficult to manufacture, in large part due to the need for multiple layers of perfectly linked crystals. This new black phosphorus technology requires just one layer allowing the device to be flexible, giving it unique properties when bent.“The shift in black phosphorus' emission wavelength with bending is really quite dramatic, enabling the LED to be tuned across the mid-infrared,” said Professor Ali Javey, from the University of California at Berkeley, whose group led the work.Importantly, the device could make the work of firefighters, miners and military safer, allowing them to identify potentially lethal gases from safe distances as the ultra-thin, ultra-light devices can be placed on small drones. Flying such a drone over a building fire could tell firefighters what dangers they face and equipment they’ll need.The low-cost technology could also make its way into devices for use by plumbers and building managers.“Our IR photo detectors could be integrated into a camera so that we could look at our phone screen and ‘see’ gas leaks or emissions and be able to determine what kind of gas it is,” Professor Crozier said.
2021 09 27
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Gallium Oxide White LED Prospects
Gallium Oxide White LED Prospects
Saga University in Japan has reported work towards white light-emitting diodes (WLEDs) based on rare-earth (RE)-doped gallium oxide (Ga2O3) [Yafei Huang et al, Appl. Phys. Lett., v119, p062107, 2021]. The researchers adopted a vertical integration strategy with Ga2O3 layers doped with thulium (Tm), europium (Eu) and erbium (Er) grown on top of each other. The team comments that “films grown by lateral integration are deposited side-by-side, while the co-doping of multiple rare earth elements into the same host will unavoidably degrade the crystal quality and, thus, induce undesirable threshold voltage and luminous efficiency.” The vertical strategy leads to more compact devices without compromising crystal quality. The team adds: “On the other hand, compared with phosphor-assisted WLEDs, direct white light emissions are achieved from single-material-based LEDs in this work without using additional red, blue or green phosphors, which can greatly reduce the energy re-absorption effect between different phosphors.” Such energy re-absorption would naturally impact power efficiency. The researchers also see the phosphor-free approach based on single-material-based WLEDs with direct primary color mixing as more conducive to displays based on smaller-pixel micro-LEDs. Although rare-earth doping has been tried in gallium nitride and zinc oxide devices, there are problems such as needing high voltages (~100V) or poor color balance due to spectral gaps. The Saga team sees β-Ga2O3 as “an ideal host for rare-earth ions benefiting from its ultrawide bandgap (4.9eV), which is advantageous to improve the thermal stability and luminous ability of rare-earth dopants at room temperature”. According to the researchers, at present, “there are no reports available related to full-color (white) LEDs based on rare-earth-doped Ga2O3.” The doped Ga2O3 layers were deposited on p-type gallium arsenide, p-GaAs (111), using alternate-target pulsed laser deposition (PLD) at 500°C. The Ga2O3 targets were variously doped with rare-earth oxides: 1wt.% Tm2O3, 1wt.% Eu2O3 and 5wt.% Er2O3. The laser light came from a krypton fluoride (KrF) excimer laser emitting deep-ultraviolet light at 248nm wavelength. The PLD was carried out in an oxygen atmosphere at 0.1Pa pressure. The samples consisted of 150-periods of the sequence of the three types of Ga2O3 doping (Figure 1). The growth process lasted 150 minutes. Material analysis suggested that the atomic concentrations for the doped layers were 0.3% Tm, 0.5% Eu and 2.3% Er. Figure 1: Schematic structure of LED-A based on Ga2O3:(Tm+Eu+Er)/GaAs heterojunction. The LEDs featured an indium tin oxide (ITO) transparent conductor n-electrode and gold (Au) p-electrode. The ITO was applied with direct-current sputtering; the gold with electon-beam evaporation. Atomic force microscopy showed a sample surface “filled with uniformly distributed grain-like structures” with a root-mean-square roughness of 10nm. When subjected to a forward voltage of more than 8.8V, the current begins to increase rapidly. The researchers also note that the electroluminescence (EL) is only observed under forward bias, suggesting that “simultaneously injected electrons and holes are indispensable for the EL”. The researchers associate the emitted light with 4f transitions from the Eu3+, Er3+, and Tm3+ ions (Figure 2). Figure 2: (a) Current-voltage characteristics curve of LED-A. Inset: semi-log characteristics and digital photograph of LED-A at 70mA. (b) EL spectra under different operating currents. (c) EL intensities of emissions at 475, 529, and 615nm as function of injection current. (d) CIE chromaticity coordinates under different currents.   The various peaks associated with the different ions were: 461 and 475nm with Tm3+; 529, 550, and 656nm with Er3+; 590, 615, and 712nm with Eu3+. Although the emissions somewhat overlap, the Tm ones are mainly in the blue range, Er green, and Eu red. The combination gives white light. The researchers explain: “Due to the existence of oxygen vacancy defects in the film, the simultaneous red, green, and blue emissions are supposed to be triggered by the defect-assisted energy transfer from the Ga2O3 host to RE3+ (Eu3+, Er3+, and Tm3+) ions.” On the basis of previous reports, the researchers expect the emission to be relatively independent of the temperature environment since the complete outer 5s and 5p orbitals shield the 4f shell from such influence. The positions of the peaks were found to vary little with changing current injection. However, the strength of the emissions did vary, with the balance shifting from red to green and blue as the current increases. The color content of the main device reported, LED-A, shifted from pink to white with injections from 40mA to 80mA. The correlated color temperature (CCT) varied from 2370K to 7592K, respectively, a shift from a warm to cold tone. The team reports: “For instance, the emitted light at 55mA locates at a warm-white point with CIE coordinates of (0.3739, 0.3410) and CCT of 3926K, which meets the requirements for indoor lighting applications.” The researchers also see 65mA as providing “superior” CIE coordinates, (0.3329, 0.3335), but 5479K CCT, suitable for indoor/outdoor cold-white illumination. Table 1: Thicknesses of doped Ga2O3 layers. The color balance was also varied in hardware, with the researchers producing four other device structures with different layer thicknesses of the various components (Table 1). These resulted in different color balance behavior (Figure 3). Figure 3: CIE chromaticity diagrams for (a) LED-a, (b) LED-b, (c) LED-c, and (d) LED-d under different operating currents.     The author Mike Cooke is a freelance technology journalist who has worked in the semiconductor and advanced technology sectors since 1997.  
2021 09 27
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Retailers Employing NICHIA LED Technology Are Ahead Of The Game
Retailers Employing NICHIA LED Technology Are Ahead Of The Game
After completing a successful pilot project, German retailer EDEKA equips its latest store entirely with NICHIA technology Tokushima, Japan – 3 August 2021: LED manufacturer NICHIA is a technology leader in highly efficient human centric lighting and the replication of natural light. Its innovative LED technologies are increasingly being used in retail to push the shopping experience to the next level. The most recent project is an EDEKA store in Wiesbaden-Sonnenberg, Germany, which opened its doors in May and is equipped with a lighting solution entirely based on NICHIA technology. The owners of the store engaged Prof. Dipl.-Phys. Werner Lorke and his interdisciplinary team of experts to plan and implement the project. As part of his consulting work with iO Interdisziplinäre Objekte, the physicist focuses on product and exhibition design and brings together the fields of architecture, technology, and art. He was tasked with developing and employing a lighting concept that presents the store’s merchandise in the best possible way and creates a positive shopping experience for the customer. To do this, he selected NICHIA's ‘Light so Good' technologies, which significantly enhance the quality of light: 2-in-1 tunable white, Optisolis, and Vitasolis.For the Wiesbaden-Sonnenberg project, Lorke drew, among other things, on the experience he had already gained over several years with another EDEKA branch in Wiesbaden. Above average sales figures in this store prove that the influence of light on people is enormous. Thus, lighting generally represents a great opportunity for retailers. "We are proud to say that all our activities here, in terms of introducing new illumination, have more than paid for themselves within a few months," he emphasizes. "Based on this experience, our advice to retailers, in general, is to look at lighting as a sales tool rather than as an expense."In the confectionery department, for example, a solution with adjustable color temperature has proven successful. Thanks to 2-in-1 tunable white LED and COB, it is possible to create good contrast between the merchandise on display and the aisles, as well as to install dynamic lighting in which the color temperature changes throughout the day. Optisolis products are ideal for illuminating goods such as fruit and vegetables. They can be used to produce a light spectrum that comes closest to that of the sun, while at the same time UV emission is essentially non-existent. As a result, it has a positive effect on perishable goods while fruit and vegetables shine in the best possible light. Vitasolis provides brilliant white light and a wide wavelength spectrum for pleasant illumination. A strong cyan component compared to other products has a positive effect on the human circadian rhythm. Aisles illuminated with Vitasolis in combination with Optisolis product provide shoppers with an image that is inspiring and very pleasant – a solution ideally suited, for example, in the dairy section. High CRI Optisolis illuminating the dairy products presents the merchandise more naturally while the natural white light coming from Vitasolis is suitable for illuminating the aisle. Lorke applies Vitasolis for two reasons: one, it allows for a good contrast between space and merchandise thanks to its broad spectrum and low contents of yellow spectrum. Two, its quality of light is extremely easy on the eye. As such, the technology also perfectly meets the needs of any counter areas. Here, the comfortable lighting makes waiting times more pleasant for visitors. A total of around 500 luminaires from all three 'Light so Good' technologies have been installed at EDEKA in Wiesbaden-Sonnenberg."Ultimately, each product group in the store requires its own lighting concept," states Lorke. "The secret lies in the optimal mix of color temperature, color spectrum, and contrast. At the moment, I don't see any alternative on the market to NICHIA products for achieving such a high quality of light as we have managed to create here."Note: Vitasolis and Optisolis are trademarks owned by NICHIA.
2021 09 27
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Scientists Develop Efficient GaN-based Green LEDs
Scientists Develop Efficient GaN-based Green LEDs
A research team led by Shengjun Zhou at Wuhan University has reported developing efficient GaN-based green LEDs on sapphire substrate. They proposed a hybrid nucleation layer consisting of sputtered AlN and mid-temperature GaN components to boost quantum efficiency of GaN-based green LEDs.The team says the hybrid nucleation layer provides a promising approach for the pursuit of efficient III-nitride emitters in the green-to-amber region.Currently, the development of efficient III-nitride emitters in the full visible range is very attractive. The integration of multicolour III-nitride emitters can enable efficient and precise management of the mixing spectra to realize high-resolution displays and various smart lighting applications. However, owing to the poor efficiency of III-nitride emitters in the green-to-amber region, these promising applications have been largely delayed.The researchers have fabricated high-efficiency InGaN/GaN green LEDs on sapphire substrate by using the novel hybrid nucleation layer. A stacking fault band structure was generated at the interface of hybrid nucleation layer and GaN, which facilitated the misfit stress compensation. Benefiting from the early misfit stress relaxation, they achieved reduced dislocation density and residual stress in the green LEDs. An efficiency improvement of ~16 percent was demonstrated in the mass production by using the hybrid nucleation layer. This gain is attributed to the increased localisation depth and spatial overlapping of the electron and hole wave functions.‘Toward efficient long-wavelength III-nitride emitters using a hybrid nucleation layer' by Bin Tang et al, Optics Express, 29(17), 2021 WHU team boost quantum efficiency using hybrid nucleation layer
2021 09 27
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Candidates For Next-gen LED-based Datacoms
Candidates For Next-gen LED-based Datacoms
UK researchers show how organic semiconductors, CQDs and perovskites can be used in LED-based optical communications systems A new paper from the University of Surrey and the University of Cambridge has detailed how two relatively unexplored semiconducting materials can satisfy the telecommunication industry's hunger for enormous amounts of data at ever-greater speeds.LED-based communications techniques allow computing devices, including mobile phones, to communicate with one another by using infrared light. However, LED techniques are underused because in its current state LED transmits data at far slower speeds than other wireless technologies such as light-fidelity (Li-Fi).In a paper published by Nature Electronics, the researchers from Surrey and Cambridge, along with partners from the University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, examine how organic semiconductors, colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) and metal halide perovskites (perovskites), can be used in LED-based optical communications systems.The research team explored efforts to improve the performance and efficiency of these LEDs, and they considered their potential applications in on-chip interconnects and Li-Fi.Aobo Ren, the co-first author and visiting postdoctoral researcher at the University of Surrey, said:“There's excitement surrounding CQDs and perovskites because they offer great promise for low-power, cost-effective and scalable communications modules.“Although the conventional inorganic thin-film technologies are likely to continue to play a dominant role in optical communications, we believe that LEDs based on these materials can play a complementary role that could have a sizeable impact on the industry.”Hao Wang, the co-first author and PhD student at the University of Cambridge, said: “Future applications of LEDs will not be limited to the fields of lighting and displays. The development of LEDs based on these solution-processable materials for optical communication purposes has only begun, and their performance is still far from what's required. It is necessary and timely to discuss the potential strategies and present technical challenges for the deployment of real-world communication links using these LEDs from the material, device and system aspects.”Jiang Wu, the corresponding author from the University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, said: “Photonic devices for the Internet of Things (IoT) and 6G communication systems need to be high-speed, low-cost and easy to integrate. Organic semiconductors, CQDs and perovskites are promising materials that could be used to complement and/or compete with conventional inorganic counterparts in particular optoelectronic applications.”Wei Zhang, the corresponding author and Senior Lecturer from the University of Surrey, said: “IoT and 6G communication systems represent a trillion-dollar market in the next few years. We are proud to collaborate with the top research teams in this field and accelerate the development of emerging data communication technology for rapid entry to the market in the next decade.”'Emerging light-emitting diodes for next-generation data communications' by Aobo Ren et al; Nature Electronics 2021
2021 09 27
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Seoul Semiconductor 's Innovative WICOP LED Technology
Seoul Semiconductor 's Innovative WICOP LED Technology
Seoul Semiconductor Seeks Greater Market Share in Global High-Power LED Market Valued at USD 2 Billion with Innovative WICOP LED Technology. ANSAN, South Korea--Seoul Semiconductor Co., Ltd. (KOSDAQ 046890), a leading global innovator of LED products and technology, announced that it has introduced high-power LED package ‘Z5M4’ with WICOP technology, one of the second-generation technologies in the LED industry. Z5M4 is 10% brighter than the conventional products and is easy to replace the existing high-power products. Accordingly, Seoul Semiconductor seeks to expand its market share in the USD 2 billion worth of global high-power LED market for street lighting, bay-lighting, and horticulture lighting, which has been formed by vertical chip manufacturers.   Comparison of WICOP and product design stolen under the name of COB or CSP * Vertical chip: Excellent heat dissipation structure with vertical electrodes design * COB (Chip on Board): A structure that reduces the volume by connecting wires to a semiconductor chip directly mounted on a printed circuit board * CSP (Chip Scale Package): Silicon semiconductor technology that makes BGA (Ball Grid Array) on silicon semiconductor chips and assembles them in a clean room Z5M4 LED with WICOP technology is designed to be 1:1 compatible easily with existing high-power products, and its excellent heat dissipation structure makes it a high-power LED package suitable for high-brightness and high-efficiency. It offers an industry-leading high luminous efficiency of 175 lm/W and can be used for up to 100,000 hours. Seoul Semiconductor has been leading the global market with its core patented technology, which obtained a permanent injunction against Philips TV product and 13 automotive lighting brand LED products infringing WICOP patents in 2019 and 2021.“Seoul Semiconductor’s Z5M4 LED for high-power lighting will quickly encroach the USD 2 billion market dominated by vertical technology companies. We plan to apply this product not only to the high-power lightings, but also to the  electronic device flash and automotive lightings, followed by SunLike LED, a natural sunlight spectrum LED technology,” said an official of Seoul Semiconductor. Seoul Semiconductor’s Z5M4 package with WICOP technology About Seoul Semiconductor Seoul Semiconductor is the world’s second-largest global LED manufacturer, a ranking excluding the captive market, and has more than 10,000 patents. Based on a differentiated product portfolio, Seoul offers a wide range of technologies, and mass produces innovative LED products for indoor and outdoor lighting, automotive, IT products, such as mobile phones, computer displays, and other applications, as well as the UV area. The company’s world’s first development and mass production products are becoming the LED industry standard and leading the global market with a package-free LED, WICOP; a high-voltage AC-driven LED, Acrich; an LED with 10X the output of a conventional LED, nPola; a cutting edge ultraviolet clean technology LED, Violeds; an all direction light emitting technology, filament LED; a natural sun spectrum LED, SunLike; and more.
2021 09 27
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Question with LED and Zener Diode?
Question with LED and Zener Diode?
Get a zener diode 3.5 volts higher than the one you now have1. LED Gloving Slow Shutter Speed?This is an example of rear curtain sync. Set camera to rear curtain sync Camera on tripod Low ISO Small aperture Dark conditions, the only light you want to record is the light from the gloves and the final flash. Flash mounted on camera Shutter on 'B' setting Remoter shutter release. Method. Open shutter and lock open. Move the gloves around. Close shutter. Just before the shutter closes the flash will fire, recording the face etc. Rear curtain is good because the light trails are behind the movement which is opposite to the normal flash sync. Chris2. Will the Germany led European Union be a Fourth Reich?Is EU under German domination becoming a 4 rth Reich?A supranational union is a type of multinational political union where negotiated power is delegated to an authority by governments of member states. The concept of supranational union is sometimes used to describe the European Union (EU), as a new type of political entity. (wikipedia).Germany currently is maintaining a balance of trust and power, and has no interest to get more power at the expense of trust. And of course we have interests, economical interest3. What is the brightest LED lantern?Brightest Led Lantern4. Powering an LED with transistor in saturation mode"Please do not tell me to buy other transistors" ...that's what I wanted to suggest: Use a MOSFET instead of a NPN, rated at 150 mA (or more). The gate/base of a MOSFET draws less (usualy much less) than 1 mA. Otherwise the darlington pair is another solution if for some valid reason you have to keep these specific transistors. Your calculation about R2 is correct5. what kind of LED bulb do i need for these tail lights?do no longer forget water. I particularly have 13 geckos. My abode geckos drink water i've got sprayed into the tank off the glass and flowers and my leopard geckos drink water from a bowl. My geckos purely consume crickets and different small bugs. considering they only consume at night I feed them at night. attempt conserving slightly carrot or a wedge of an orange interior the tank for any crickets that are not getting eaten perfect away so the crickets do no longer nibble on the geckos. additionally, an undertank heater on one section is significant. reptiles choose their tanks to have a heat section and a cooler section. they choose a mild on one portion of the tank additionally. Blacklights paintings nicely for my nocturnal reptiles6. the beatles vs. led zeppelin????john lennon jimmy page paul mccartney (unless we are going on bass skills alone) john bonham sgt peppers led zeppelin 2 the white album rubber soul led zeppelin a day in the life kashmir whole lotta love helter skelter black bird over the hills and far away well, after splitting the answers almost exactly 50-50 i am just as undecided as when i started. i like both for mostly different reasons.7. How to toggle LED on button press?At the moment, you've got two main problems. Firstly, both your if statements are being triggered one after the other. This is because the first if statement sets x to 0, which is part of the condition the second if statement looks for. The second problem is that you are not monitoring the previous state of the button. buttonState will appear HIGH every time round loop, even if the button has been held down for several seconds. The result is that the output pin will be quickly getting turned on and off all the time. What you need to do is store the last known state of the button. On every iteration of the main loop, only respond to the button if it's currently HIGH, and if it was LOW last time round the loop. You also need to make sure your two if statements are mutually exclusive; i. e. if you trigger one then do not trigger the other by mistake too, or it will cancel it out.Something like this should work better:As noted elsewhere, you still need to debounce the button, otherwise you are likely to get some false-positives. That can be done in hardware or software. A really simple way to get around it temporarily is to put in a delay of several milliseconds every time you detect the button changing state. It's not perfect, but it might be enough to get you started
2021 08 24
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