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What Are Some Led Zeppelin Songs with Very Good Basslines?

There are plenty. John Paul Jones often gets overshadowed by the flamboyance of Page and Plant but Led Zeppelin was a band which had virtuoso musicians in every section and if you listen carefully, you can often find the guitar, the bass, the drums and Plant's wailing, each part of it constantly vying for you attention. Some of the most spectacular bass lines I've heard among Led Zeppelin songs are in: In My Time of Dying: The crunchy riff, the slide guitar parts, the majestic drum and the killer bass line (played on a fretless bass guitar) come together with magical dynamism in this re-interpretation of the classic original by Blind Willie Johnson. Possibly the most fun bass line to listen to.

Heartbreaker: The majority of discussions surrounding this song is about its riff and that impromptu solo by Page but the bass sounds just as great.The Lemon Song: Classic blues-rock at its best. The Crunge: Often overlooked in the pile of Zepp favorites, this is probably at their funkiest. Very groovy. Immigrant Song: The phrase "hammer of the gods" really fits a description of the song. In my opinion the version on How The West Was Won is far superior to the studio version. Celebration DayHow Many More Times: The rhythm section really stands out on this one. Dazed and Confused: You could say the same as above. nAchilles Last Stand: Excellent in every respect. It's like a symphonic arrangement, the sound. Custard Pie: The most cheerful song about cunnilingus I've heard I thinkNobody's Fault But Mine: I prefer the soulfulness of the original version but again, great.nThis list could go on and on

• Other Questions

What led the United Kingdom to need the 1832 Reform Act?

Basically, the franchise for Parliament was related to freehold ownership of property, mainly rural property. With some separate representation of older corporate towns, with odd qualifications, mostly linked either to ownership or occupancy of larger houses. (look up for the precise details of Potwallopers etc) This was tied to the situation as it had been long ago. However, things had changed, and some villages were in fact almost depopulated, but the empty pieces of land there retained a right to vote, so very rich men bought them up and put stooges in to vote as ordered. These were Rotten Boroughs, lacking genuine voters. There had been a significant movement of population after the Industrial revolution, with huge populations living in new towns (or ex villages expanded into towns). These new towns had no right to vote at all.The Electoral Reform Act removed the franchise from the Rotten Boroughs, and gave new voting rights to the new towns. It also gave a vote to any voter occupying a freehold property of a reasonable ratable value, and even some of the more major tenants (£10 tenants) Only males, above the age of 21 could vote, of course.

This still left most rural men and huge numbers of townsmen in smaller houses, pretty angry , lacking any vote till 1868, when most town male householders got a vote (rural later, because property values were lower) but not lodgers. . Voting was still public til 1870 and no one receiving poor relief or in prison could vote - and of course,. women didn't want to worry their pretty little heads about men's affairs, did they? By a quirk, women large property owners were listed for another reason, so accidentally could vote (but not serve as councillors in local council election s only,) but female suffrage, over 30 only, did not come till 1919, and women over 21 did not vote till 1928.

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Am I justified in asking for closure from a girl who led me on?

Yes you are justified to harbor some kid of closure . Whether she is going to give you any closure is another story . Chances are a girl who leads you on will also run for the hills when she decides to dump you . They usually move on quickly . You can ask for closure but if you don't get it just chalk it up to experience and learning possibly how to spot someone who is leading you on to begin with . Though you still have to take someone for who they are and in an individual basis . If you have been hurt then go more slowly next time you date someone . Thanking some extra time to get to know someone the better off you will be. It really does help to solidify or dissolve a budding relationship when you take your time and get to the person and enjoy time with them before you fall head over heels for them . It helps anyway . But dating people is what it is about . You win some and you lose some . It's the experiences that your having that you need to enjoy . Mr or Mrs right isn't easily in the cards for most people . And when you least expect it you usually end up with the right person . In the meantime enjoy your experiences with all different kinds . There will be many that do not work out . But that doesn't mean you don't recover and move on . Closure may help you but it is not necessary to get to you happy self if you can have the bent towards knowing that you probably would not want to have stayed with someone who has used you . Let that person move on and realest your heart and you will snap back into your old self without closure . Sometimes it takes a bit more time to do so . But even if she gave you closure it sounds like you would need time to let go of her and move on .

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How would the next century led by the United States differ from it being led by China?

The main difference would be in the level of peace (or warfare).A world led by the United States would be extremely violent. One has only to look at the last 70 years (since the Second World War). Here are Americas wars:Korea and China 1950-53 (Korean War)Guatemala 1954Indonesia 1958Cuba 1959-1961Guatemala 1960Congo 1964Laos 1964-73Vietnam 1961-73Cambodia 1969-70Guatemala 1967-69Grenada 1983Lebanon 1983, 1984 (both Lebanese and Syrian targets)Libya 1986El Salvador 1980sNicaragua 1980sIran 1987Panama 1989Iraq 1991 (Persian Gulf War)Kuwait 1991Somalia 1993Bosnia 1994, 1995Sudan 1998Afghanistan 1998Yugoslavia 1999Yemen 2002Iraq 1991-2003 (US/UK on regular basis)Iraq 2003-2015Afghanistan 2001-2015Pakistan 2007-2015Somalia 2007-8, 2011Yemen 2009, 2011Libya 2011, 2015Syria 2014-2016These wars have caused many millions of civilian casualties. In any other reality, the United States would be tried for war crimes!The United States is a warmongering nation. In its 244 years of existence, America has known only 16 years of peace! Chew on that for a moment.

On the other hand, China hates war. Look over the past 2,000 years and you see that China is one of the most peaceful nations in human history.ALL of Chinas wars have been about either nation-building or protecting its territorial rights (border disputes). China has never been expansionist, not like the Romans, Ottomans, Portuguese, Spanish, Dutch, French, British, Germans, Japanese, and Soviets.

All nations have fought wars to build their state. This is especially true with European countries and the United States. China is no exception. But China has never invaded a distant foreign land.

A world led by China would be relatively peaceful. Thats what Xi Jinpings speech at the UNGA was all about!Thats what Belt and Road is about: giving China global economic influence in lieu of military influence.China wont need 800 military bases around the globe. China wont need 11 super carrier battle groups roaming the worlds oceans to project its military power.China wont export its political system abroad, like the United States has (freedom and democracy).Welcome to Pax Sinica

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What if Alexander III led Russia in WW1?

Russia would've lost even faster.Alexander III was hell bent on keeping the rigid autocratic system and hierarchy that he had inherited. His policies alienated most of the population and their was no sort of land reform, or any sort of reform whatsoever.Nicholas II, for all his faults, actually had a better reign than his father's. The Russian state industrialised, got stronger and the army and navy were reorganised. Some sort of representation was introduced, and Nicholas was actually quite popular among the people.It was the army and navy of Alexander III that was crushed on the waters of the Japan sea and on the hills of Manchuria. A corrupt hierarchy and bureaucracy, and an inefficient army were also among the results of his reign. The army was in no way ready for a war, and was commanded by generals who, like the Tsar favoured reinforcing the status quo, rather than increasing its fighting power with better tactics and officers training. He did nothing to modernise agriculture- once again, to stop radical ideas growing. Alexander III made Russia dependent on French loans simply to maintain its image as a power.Had Germany attacked at any point during his reign, they most certainly would have won. Alexander III was, in foreign as well as domestic policy, simply able to rule with sheer strength of character. His regime was uncompromising but he managed to maintain an inefficient system by his personality alone, with nothing to back it up.In much the same way, he managed to make people think Russia was strong by the image of its Tsar-tough and powerful. In actuality, it would've been no march for Germany, and the Kaiserstandarte would be be flying in Petersburg months into the attack if Germany decided to wage war.

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Which leadership skills led to a successful outcome?

The leadership skills are:Self-ManagingIts hard to manage others effectively if you cant manage yourself. Self-managing means being able to prioritize your goals and being responsible for accomplishing those objectives.Acting StrategicallyA forward-thinking, open-minded approach is necessary for todays leaders. According to a Harvard Business Publishing report, Leading Now: Critical Capabilities for a Complex World, Leaders must always be prepared to adjust their strategies to capture emerging opportunities or tackle unexpected challenges.Being An Effective CommunicatorPowerful leaders know when to talk and when to listen. They are effective communicators and are able to clearly and succinctly explain to their employees everything from organizational goals to specific tasks.

Having A Vision For The FutureExceptional leaders have the ability to look into their companys future and make clear, concrete goals that will benefit their organization.Managing ComplexityLeaders must be problem solvers who can make decisions under rapidly shifting circumstances.Place courage over fear.Exceptional leaders have developed mastery over their fears by training themselves not to regress under stress. They wear their emotions close to their chest, and prefer to place acts of great courage over cowering to their fears.Empathy towards self and others.Exceptional leaders are naturally empathic. Their trespasses through times of great suffering have developed their keen ability to take-in and understand anothers perception.

Maintain and nurture their reputation.

The most powerful way to influence others is to have a solid reputation. Great leaders understand their reputation is their most valuable asset. People are drawn to those they love and respect, and who possess flawless levels of personal integrity.

Lead By ExampleAs a leader, the best way to build credibility and gain the respect of others is to set the right examples. Demonstrate the behavior that you want people to follow.Motivate and InspireThe best leaders drive their team forward with passion, enthusiasm, inspiration and motivation. Invest time in the people you lead to determine their strengths, needs, and priorities

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End of Halogen Light Bulbs Spells Brighter and Cleaner Future
End of Halogen Light Bulbs Spells Brighter and Cleaner Future
Halogen light bulbs will be banned from September 2021 with fluorescent light bulbs to follow, cutting emissions and saving consumers on their energy bills. ●Halogen light bulbs to be banned from this September – with fluorescent light bulbs to follow suit ●shift to LED bulbs will cut 1.26 million tonnes of CO2 – the equivalent of removing over half a million cars from UK roads ●new rules part of tighter energy efficiency standards for electrical appliances as the UK builds back greener, helping save British consumers £75 a year on their energy bills The government has announced plans today (Wednesday 9 June) to end the sale of halogen light bulbs from this September, as part of the UK’s wider efforts to tackle climate change. Legislation being brought forward this month will also include the removal of fluorescent lights from shelves from September 2023. Currently, around 2 thirds of bulbs sold in Britain are LED lights, making a considerable impact in improving the energy efficiency of the country’s buildings. They last 5 times longer than traditional halogen lightbulbs and produce the same amount of light – but use up to 80% less power. The UK began phasing out the sale of higher-energy halogen lightbulbs in 2018. The new legislation would mean retailers will no longer be able to sell the majority of halogen bulbs for general household use in the UK from 1 September. To help people make the switch, ministers are also announcing that all light bulbs will start to feature new energy efficiency advice via ‘rescaled’ energy labels on their boxes. The labels will simplify the way energy efficiency is displayed on a new scale from A-G, doing away with the A+, A++ or A+++ ratings. The new labels will raise the bar for each class, meaning very few bulbs will now be classified as A, helping consumers choose the most environmentally friendly bulbs. This measure is expected to mean that LED light bulbs will account for 85% of all bulbs sold by 2030. In addition, the government also plans to start phasing out the sale of high-energy fluorescent lightbulbs, with a view to bringing an end to their sale from September 2023. Taken together, these new rules will mark a significant shift to more energy efficient and longer lasting LEDs and will stop 1.26 million tonnes of carbon being emitted every year - the equivalent of removing over half a million cars from the UK’s roads. The move is part of a package of energy efficiency improvements to electrical appliances, which will save consumers an average of £75 a year on energy bills. Energy Minister, Anne-Marie Trevelyan, said: We’re phasing out old inefficient halogen bulbs for good, so we can move more quickly to longer lasting LED bulbs, meaning less waste and a brighter and cleaner future for the UK. By helping ensure electrical appliances use less energy but perform just as well, we’re saving households money on their bills and helping tackle climate change. Today’s plans also include a ban from September on the sale of lighting fixtures with fixed bulbs that can’t be replaced – meaning the fixtures have to be thrown away. Fixtures such as these account for 100,000 tonnes of electrical waste every year – out of a total 1.5 million tonnes of electrical waste each year. Minister for Climate Change, Lord Martin Callanan, said: Flicking the off-switch on energy inefficient light bulbs is a simple way that households can save money at the same time as saving the planet. Phasing out halogen bulbs in favour of LED alternatives that last longer, are just as bright and cheaper to run, is another way that we are helping tackle climate change. Chief Executive of Signify UK, which owns Philips lighting, Stephen Rouatt, said: We welcome the UK government’s next step in the transition towards more sustainable lighting products. Using energy-efficient LED equivalents for halogen and fluorescent lighting on an even broader scale will significantly help the UK on its journey to decarbonisation, as well as lowering the annual electricity bills for consumers. Overall, the government’s package of energy efficiency improvements will also cut 8 million tonnes of carbon emissions in 2021 by reducing the amount of energy products consume over their life-time – the equivalent of removing all emissions from Birmingham and Leeds each year.
2021 09 27
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Bright Idea: New LEDs Can Detect Off Food And Lethal Gases
Bright Idea: New LEDs Can Detect Off Food And Lethal Gases
New LED technology has potential to benefit firefighters, miners, the military, plumbers and households.(Source:University of Melbourne) Your smart device could soon be even smarter with a new infrared light emitting diode (LED) that is ‘tuneable’ to different wavelengths of light – it could enable your fridge to tell you when your food is going off and your phone to tell you if that Gucci purse is real. The technology has been developed by the University of Melbourne, the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, the University of California, Berkeley, and the Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Transformative Meta-Optical Systems (TMOS). They have come up with a device that could identify a suite of gases, potentially including lethal ones, improving the safety of firefighters, miners, the military, and your local plumber. The work appeared in the journal, Nature. Infrared (IR) spectrometers are common laboratory equipment that can identify different materials by analysing their infrared signatures, which is invisible to the human eye. Just like an AM radio can be tuned to different frequencies of radio wave, IR spectrometers can be tuned to different wavelengths, giving a broad-spectrum analysis of a gas sample. However, these machines are bulky and expensive and not usually practical to take out of the laboratory and into the field. “Our new technology bonds a thin layer of black phosphorus crystals to a flexible, plastic-like substrate, allowing it to be bent in ways that cause the black phosphorus to emit light of different wavelengths essentially creating a tuneable infrared LED that allows for the detection of multiple materials,” University of Melbourne Professor Kenneth Crozier said. “This technology could fit inside smartphones and become part of everyday use.”For example, the bacteria found in meat release various gases as they multiply. The presence of these gases is a good indication that the meat is spoiling and is no longer fit for consumption.“The device placed inside a fridge could send a notification that meat is going off. When pointed at a handbag, it could reveal whether the bag is made of real leather or a cheaper substitute,” said Professor Crozier, who is also the Deputy Director of TMOS.Current materials that are used for IR photodetectors and light emitting devices can be difficult to manufacture, in large part due to the need for multiple layers of perfectly linked crystals. This new black phosphorus technology requires just one layer allowing the device to be flexible, giving it unique properties when bent.“The shift in black phosphorus' emission wavelength with bending is really quite dramatic, enabling the LED to be tuned across the mid-infrared,” said Professor Ali Javey, from the University of California at Berkeley, whose group led the work.Importantly, the device could make the work of firefighters, miners and military safer, allowing them to identify potentially lethal gases from safe distances as the ultra-thin, ultra-light devices can be placed on small drones. Flying such a drone over a building fire could tell firefighters what dangers they face and equipment they’ll need.The low-cost technology could also make its way into devices for use by plumbers and building managers.“Our IR photo detectors could be integrated into a camera so that we could look at our phone screen and ‘see’ gas leaks or emissions and be able to determine what kind of gas it is,” Professor Crozier said.
2021 09 27
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Gallium Oxide White LED Prospects
Gallium Oxide White LED Prospects
Saga University in Japan has reported work towards white light-emitting diodes (WLEDs) based on rare-earth (RE)-doped gallium oxide (Ga2O3) [Yafei Huang et al, Appl. Phys. Lett., v119, p062107, 2021]. The researchers adopted a vertical integration strategy with Ga2O3 layers doped with thulium (Tm), europium (Eu) and erbium (Er) grown on top of each other. The team comments that “films grown by lateral integration are deposited side-by-side, while the co-doping of multiple rare earth elements into the same host will unavoidably degrade the crystal quality and, thus, induce undesirable threshold voltage and luminous efficiency.” The vertical strategy leads to more compact devices without compromising crystal quality. The team adds: “On the other hand, compared with phosphor-assisted WLEDs, direct white light emissions are achieved from single-material-based LEDs in this work without using additional red, blue or green phosphors, which can greatly reduce the energy re-absorption effect between different phosphors.” Such energy re-absorption would naturally impact power efficiency. The researchers also see the phosphor-free approach based on single-material-based WLEDs with direct primary color mixing as more conducive to displays based on smaller-pixel micro-LEDs. Although rare-earth doping has been tried in gallium nitride and zinc oxide devices, there are problems such as needing high voltages (~100V) or poor color balance due to spectral gaps. The Saga team sees β-Ga2O3 as “an ideal host for rare-earth ions benefiting from its ultrawide bandgap (4.9eV), which is advantageous to improve the thermal stability and luminous ability of rare-earth dopants at room temperature”. According to the researchers, at present, “there are no reports available related to full-color (white) LEDs based on rare-earth-doped Ga2O3.” The doped Ga2O3 layers were deposited on p-type gallium arsenide, p-GaAs (111), using alternate-target pulsed laser deposition (PLD) at 500°C. The Ga2O3 targets were variously doped with rare-earth oxides: 1wt.% Tm2O3, 1wt.% Eu2O3 and 5wt.% Er2O3. The laser light came from a krypton fluoride (KrF) excimer laser emitting deep-ultraviolet light at 248nm wavelength. The PLD was carried out in an oxygen atmosphere at 0.1Pa pressure. The samples consisted of 150-periods of the sequence of the three types of Ga2O3 doping (Figure 1). The growth process lasted 150 minutes. Material analysis suggested that the atomic concentrations for the doped layers were 0.3% Tm, 0.5% Eu and 2.3% Er. Figure 1: Schematic structure of LED-A based on Ga2O3:(Tm+Eu+Er)/GaAs heterojunction. The LEDs featured an indium tin oxide (ITO) transparent conductor n-electrode and gold (Au) p-electrode. The ITO was applied with direct-current sputtering; the gold with electon-beam evaporation. Atomic force microscopy showed a sample surface “filled with uniformly distributed grain-like structures” with a root-mean-square roughness of 10nm. When subjected to a forward voltage of more than 8.8V, the current begins to increase rapidly. The researchers also note that the electroluminescence (EL) is only observed under forward bias, suggesting that “simultaneously injected electrons and holes are indispensable for the EL”. The researchers associate the emitted light with 4f transitions from the Eu3+, Er3+, and Tm3+ ions (Figure 2). Figure 2: (a) Current-voltage characteristics curve of LED-A. Inset: semi-log characteristics and digital photograph of LED-A at 70mA. (b) EL spectra under different operating currents. (c) EL intensities of emissions at 475, 529, and 615nm as function of injection current. (d) CIE chromaticity coordinates under different currents.   The various peaks associated with the different ions were: 461 and 475nm with Tm3+; 529, 550, and 656nm with Er3+; 590, 615, and 712nm with Eu3+. Although the emissions somewhat overlap, the Tm ones are mainly in the blue range, Er green, and Eu red. The combination gives white light. The researchers explain: “Due to the existence of oxygen vacancy defects in the film, the simultaneous red, green, and blue emissions are supposed to be triggered by the defect-assisted energy transfer from the Ga2O3 host to RE3+ (Eu3+, Er3+, and Tm3+) ions.” On the basis of previous reports, the researchers expect the emission to be relatively independent of the temperature environment since the complete outer 5s and 5p orbitals shield the 4f shell from such influence. The positions of the peaks were found to vary little with changing current injection. However, the strength of the emissions did vary, with the balance shifting from red to green and blue as the current increases. The color content of the main device reported, LED-A, shifted from pink to white with injections from 40mA to 80mA. The correlated color temperature (CCT) varied from 2370K to 7592K, respectively, a shift from a warm to cold tone. The team reports: “For instance, the emitted light at 55mA locates at a warm-white point with CIE coordinates of (0.3739, 0.3410) and CCT of 3926K, which meets the requirements for indoor lighting applications.” The researchers also see 65mA as providing “superior” CIE coordinates, (0.3329, 0.3335), but 5479K CCT, suitable for indoor/outdoor cold-white illumination. Table 1: Thicknesses of doped Ga2O3 layers. The color balance was also varied in hardware, with the researchers producing four other device structures with different layer thicknesses of the various components (Table 1). These resulted in different color balance behavior (Figure 3). Figure 3: CIE chromaticity diagrams for (a) LED-a, (b) LED-b, (c) LED-c, and (d) LED-d under different operating currents.     The author Mike Cooke is a freelance technology journalist who has worked in the semiconductor and advanced technology sectors since 1997.  
2021 09 27
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Retailers Employing NICHIA LED Technology Are Ahead Of The Game
Retailers Employing NICHIA LED Technology Are Ahead Of The Game
After completing a successful pilot project, German retailer EDEKA equips its latest store entirely with NICHIA technology Tokushima, Japan – 3 August 2021: LED manufacturer NICHIA is a technology leader in highly efficient human centric lighting and the replication of natural light. Its innovative LED technologies are increasingly being used in retail to push the shopping experience to the next level. The most recent project is an EDEKA store in Wiesbaden-Sonnenberg, Germany, which opened its doors in May and is equipped with a lighting solution entirely based on NICHIA technology. The owners of the store engaged Prof. Dipl.-Phys. Werner Lorke and his interdisciplinary team of experts to plan and implement the project. As part of his consulting work with iO Interdisziplinäre Objekte, the physicist focuses on product and exhibition design and brings together the fields of architecture, technology, and art. He was tasked with developing and employing a lighting concept that presents the store’s merchandise in the best possible way and creates a positive shopping experience for the customer. To do this, he selected NICHIA's ‘Light so Good' technologies, which significantly enhance the quality of light: 2-in-1 tunable white, Optisolis, and Vitasolis.For the Wiesbaden-Sonnenberg project, Lorke drew, among other things, on the experience he had already gained over several years with another EDEKA branch in Wiesbaden. Above average sales figures in this store prove that the influence of light on people is enormous. Thus, lighting generally represents a great opportunity for retailers. "We are proud to say that all our activities here, in terms of introducing new illumination, have more than paid for themselves within a few months," he emphasizes. "Based on this experience, our advice to retailers, in general, is to look at lighting as a sales tool rather than as an expense."In the confectionery department, for example, a solution with adjustable color temperature has proven successful. Thanks to 2-in-1 tunable white LED and COB, it is possible to create good contrast between the merchandise on display and the aisles, as well as to install dynamic lighting in which the color temperature changes throughout the day. Optisolis products are ideal for illuminating goods such as fruit and vegetables. They can be used to produce a light spectrum that comes closest to that of the sun, while at the same time UV emission is essentially non-existent. As a result, it has a positive effect on perishable goods while fruit and vegetables shine in the best possible light. Vitasolis provides brilliant white light and a wide wavelength spectrum for pleasant illumination. A strong cyan component compared to other products has a positive effect on the human circadian rhythm. Aisles illuminated with Vitasolis in combination with Optisolis product provide shoppers with an image that is inspiring and very pleasant – a solution ideally suited, for example, in the dairy section. High CRI Optisolis illuminating the dairy products presents the merchandise more naturally while the natural white light coming from Vitasolis is suitable for illuminating the aisle. Lorke applies Vitasolis for two reasons: one, it allows for a good contrast between space and merchandise thanks to its broad spectrum and low contents of yellow spectrum. Two, its quality of light is extremely easy on the eye. As such, the technology also perfectly meets the needs of any counter areas. Here, the comfortable lighting makes waiting times more pleasant for visitors. A total of around 500 luminaires from all three 'Light so Good' technologies have been installed at EDEKA in Wiesbaden-Sonnenberg."Ultimately, each product group in the store requires its own lighting concept," states Lorke. "The secret lies in the optimal mix of color temperature, color spectrum, and contrast. At the moment, I don't see any alternative on the market to NICHIA products for achieving such a high quality of light as we have managed to create here."Note: Vitasolis and Optisolis are trademarks owned by NICHIA.
2021 09 27
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Scientists Develop Efficient GaN-based Green LEDs
Scientists Develop Efficient GaN-based Green LEDs
A research team led by Shengjun Zhou at Wuhan University has reported developing efficient GaN-based green LEDs on sapphire substrate. They proposed a hybrid nucleation layer consisting of sputtered AlN and mid-temperature GaN components to boost quantum efficiency of GaN-based green LEDs.The team says the hybrid nucleation layer provides a promising approach for the pursuit of efficient III-nitride emitters in the green-to-amber region.Currently, the development of efficient III-nitride emitters in the full visible range is very attractive. The integration of multicolour III-nitride emitters can enable efficient and precise management of the mixing spectra to realize high-resolution displays and various smart lighting applications. However, owing to the poor efficiency of III-nitride emitters in the green-to-amber region, these promising applications have been largely delayed.The researchers have fabricated high-efficiency InGaN/GaN green LEDs on sapphire substrate by using the novel hybrid nucleation layer. A stacking fault band structure was generated at the interface of hybrid nucleation layer and GaN, which facilitated the misfit stress compensation. Benefiting from the early misfit stress relaxation, they achieved reduced dislocation density and residual stress in the green LEDs. An efficiency improvement of ~16 percent was demonstrated in the mass production by using the hybrid nucleation layer. This gain is attributed to the increased localisation depth and spatial overlapping of the electron and hole wave functions.‘Toward efficient long-wavelength III-nitride emitters using a hybrid nucleation layer' by Bin Tang et al, Optics Express, 29(17), 2021 WHU team boost quantum efficiency using hybrid nucleation layer
2021 09 27
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Candidates For Next-gen LED-based Datacoms
Candidates For Next-gen LED-based Datacoms
UK researchers show how organic semiconductors, CQDs and perovskites can be used in LED-based optical communications systems A new paper from the University of Surrey and the University of Cambridge has detailed how two relatively unexplored semiconducting materials can satisfy the telecommunication industry's hunger for enormous amounts of data at ever-greater speeds.LED-based communications techniques allow computing devices, including mobile phones, to communicate with one another by using infrared light. However, LED techniques are underused because in its current state LED transmits data at far slower speeds than other wireless technologies such as light-fidelity (Li-Fi).In a paper published by Nature Electronics, the researchers from Surrey and Cambridge, along with partners from the University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, examine how organic semiconductors, colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) and metal halide perovskites (perovskites), can be used in LED-based optical communications systems.The research team explored efforts to improve the performance and efficiency of these LEDs, and they considered their potential applications in on-chip interconnects and Li-Fi.Aobo Ren, the co-first author and visiting postdoctoral researcher at the University of Surrey, said:“There's excitement surrounding CQDs and perovskites because they offer great promise for low-power, cost-effective and scalable communications modules.“Although the conventional inorganic thin-film technologies are likely to continue to play a dominant role in optical communications, we believe that LEDs based on these materials can play a complementary role that could have a sizeable impact on the industry.”Hao Wang, the co-first author and PhD student at the University of Cambridge, said: “Future applications of LEDs will not be limited to the fields of lighting and displays. The development of LEDs based on these solution-processable materials for optical communication purposes has only begun, and their performance is still far from what's required. It is necessary and timely to discuss the potential strategies and present technical challenges for the deployment of real-world communication links using these LEDs from the material, device and system aspects.”Jiang Wu, the corresponding author from the University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, said: “Photonic devices for the Internet of Things (IoT) and 6G communication systems need to be high-speed, low-cost and easy to integrate. Organic semiconductors, CQDs and perovskites are promising materials that could be used to complement and/or compete with conventional inorganic counterparts in particular optoelectronic applications.”Wei Zhang, the corresponding author and Senior Lecturer from the University of Surrey, said: “IoT and 6G communication systems represent a trillion-dollar market in the next few years. We are proud to collaborate with the top research teams in this field and accelerate the development of emerging data communication technology for rapid entry to the market in the next decade.”'Emerging light-emitting diodes for next-generation data communications' by Aobo Ren et al; Nature Electronics 2021
2021 09 27
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Seoul Semiconductor 's Innovative WICOP LED Technology
Seoul Semiconductor 's Innovative WICOP LED Technology
Seoul Semiconductor Seeks Greater Market Share in Global High-Power LED Market Valued at USD 2 Billion with Innovative WICOP LED Technology. ANSAN, South Korea--Seoul Semiconductor Co., Ltd. (KOSDAQ 046890), a leading global innovator of LED products and technology, announced that it has introduced high-power LED package ‘Z5M4’ with WICOP technology, one of the second-generation technologies in the LED industry. Z5M4 is 10% brighter than the conventional products and is easy to replace the existing high-power products. Accordingly, Seoul Semiconductor seeks to expand its market share in the USD 2 billion worth of global high-power LED market for street lighting, bay-lighting, and horticulture lighting, which has been formed by vertical chip manufacturers.   Comparison of WICOP and product design stolen under the name of COB or CSP * Vertical chip: Excellent heat dissipation structure with vertical electrodes design * COB (Chip on Board): A structure that reduces the volume by connecting wires to a semiconductor chip directly mounted on a printed circuit board * CSP (Chip Scale Package): Silicon semiconductor technology that makes BGA (Ball Grid Array) on silicon semiconductor chips and assembles them in a clean room Z5M4 LED with WICOP technology is designed to be 1:1 compatible easily with existing high-power products, and its excellent heat dissipation structure makes it a high-power LED package suitable for high-brightness and high-efficiency. It offers an industry-leading high luminous efficiency of 175 lm/W and can be used for up to 100,000 hours. Seoul Semiconductor has been leading the global market with its core patented technology, which obtained a permanent injunction against Philips TV product and 13 automotive lighting brand LED products infringing WICOP patents in 2019 and 2021.“Seoul Semiconductor’s Z5M4 LED for high-power lighting will quickly encroach the USD 2 billion market dominated by vertical technology companies. We plan to apply this product not only to the high-power lightings, but also to the  electronic device flash and automotive lightings, followed by SunLike LED, a natural sunlight spectrum LED technology,” said an official of Seoul Semiconductor. Seoul Semiconductor’s Z5M4 package with WICOP technology About Seoul Semiconductor Seoul Semiconductor is the world’s second-largest global LED manufacturer, a ranking excluding the captive market, and has more than 10,000 patents. Based on a differentiated product portfolio, Seoul offers a wide range of technologies, and mass produces innovative LED products for indoor and outdoor lighting, automotive, IT products, such as mobile phones, computer displays, and other applications, as well as the UV area. The company’s world’s first development and mass production products are becoming the LED industry standard and leading the global market with a package-free LED, WICOP; a high-voltage AC-driven LED, Acrich; an LED with 10X the output of a conventional LED, nPola; a cutting edge ultraviolet clean technology LED, Violeds; an all direction light emitting technology, filament LED; a natural sun spectrum LED, SunLike; and more.
2021 09 27
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Question with LED and Zener Diode?
Question with LED and Zener Diode?
Get a zener diode 3.5 volts higher than the one you now have1. LED Gloving Slow Shutter Speed?This is an example of rear curtain sync. Set camera to rear curtain sync Camera on tripod Low ISO Small aperture Dark conditions, the only light you want to record is the light from the gloves and the final flash. Flash mounted on camera Shutter on 'B' setting Remoter shutter release. Method. Open shutter and lock open. Move the gloves around. Close shutter. Just before the shutter closes the flash will fire, recording the face etc. Rear curtain is good because the light trails are behind the movement which is opposite to the normal flash sync. Chris2. Will the Germany led European Union be a Fourth Reich?Is EU under German domination becoming a 4 rth Reich?A supranational union is a type of multinational political union where negotiated power is delegated to an authority by governments of member states. The concept of supranational union is sometimes used to describe the European Union (EU), as a new type of political entity. (wikipedia).Germany currently is maintaining a balance of trust and power, and has no interest to get more power at the expense of trust. And of course we have interests, economical interest3. What is the brightest LED lantern?Brightest Led Lantern4. Powering an LED with transistor in saturation mode"Please do not tell me to buy other transistors" ...that's what I wanted to suggest: Use a MOSFET instead of a NPN, rated at 150 mA (or more). The gate/base of a MOSFET draws less (usualy much less) than 1 mA. Otherwise the darlington pair is another solution if for some valid reason you have to keep these specific transistors. Your calculation about R2 is correct5. what kind of LED bulb do i need for these tail lights?do no longer forget water. I particularly have 13 geckos. My abode geckos drink water i've got sprayed into the tank off the glass and flowers and my leopard geckos drink water from a bowl. My geckos purely consume crickets and different small bugs. considering they only consume at night I feed them at night. attempt conserving slightly carrot or a wedge of an orange interior the tank for any crickets that are not getting eaten perfect away so the crickets do no longer nibble on the geckos. additionally, an undertank heater on one section is significant. reptiles choose their tanks to have a heat section and a cooler section. they choose a mild on one portion of the tank additionally. Blacklights paintings nicely for my nocturnal reptiles6. the beatles vs. led zeppelin????john lennon jimmy page paul mccartney (unless we are going on bass skills alone) john bonham sgt peppers led zeppelin 2 the white album rubber soul led zeppelin a day in the life kashmir whole lotta love helter skelter black bird over the hills and far away well, after splitting the answers almost exactly 50-50 i am just as undecided as when i started. i like both for mostly different reasons.7. How to toggle LED on button press?At the moment, you've got two main problems. Firstly, both your if statements are being triggered one after the other. This is because the first if statement sets x to 0, which is part of the condition the second if statement looks for. The second problem is that you are not monitoring the previous state of the button. buttonState will appear HIGH every time round loop, even if the button has been held down for several seconds. The result is that the output pin will be quickly getting turned on and off all the time. What you need to do is store the last known state of the button. On every iteration of the main loop, only respond to the button if it's currently HIGH, and if it was LOW last time round the loop. You also need to make sure your two if statements are mutually exclusive; i. e. if you trigger one then do not trigger the other by mistake too, or it will cancel it out.Something like this should work better:As noted elsewhere, you still need to debounce the button, otherwise you are likely to get some false-positives. That can be done in hardware or software. A really simple way to get around it temporarily is to put in a delay of several milliseconds every time you detect the button changing state. It's not perfect, but it might be enough to get you started
2021 08 24
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